# Weighted Average Cost of Capital WACC Explained with Formula and Example

Publicly-listed companies can raise capital by borrowing money or selling ownership shares. Debt investors and equity investors require a return on their money, either through interest payments or capital gains/dividends. The cost of capital takes into account both the cost of debt and the cost of equity. The purpose of WACC is to determine the cost of each part of the company’s capital structure based on the proportion of equity, debt and preferred stock it has. The company usually pays a fixed rate of interest on its debt and usually a fixed dividend on its preferred stock.

For example, if a company’s financial statements or cost of capital are volatile, cost of shares may plummet; as a result, investors may not provide financial backing. Many companies calculate their weighted average cost of capital (WACC) and use it as their discount rate when budgeting for a new project. To reach an overall cost of capital, analysts generally calculate a cost of equity and a cost of debt, and then take the weighted average of them both. The cost of capital is how much a company has to pay to obtain funding for projects. The cost of capital at a corporation level is calculated by factoring the weight and cost of both a company’s debt and equity.

The second approach is that cost of capital is defined as the lending rate that the firm could have earned if it had invested its funds elsewhere. A capable financial manager always considers capital market fluctuations and tries to achieve a sound and economical capital structure for the firm. The risk free rate is the yield on long term bonds in the particular market, such as government bonds. Want to learn more about how understanding cost of capital can help drive business initiatives? Explore Leading with Finance and our other online finance and accounting courses. Download our free course flowchart to determine which best aligns with your goals.

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One important variable in the cost of equity formula is beta, representing the volatility of a certain stock in comparison with the wider market. A company with a high beta must reward equity investors more generously than other companies because those investors are assuming a greater degree of risk. Unpredictable companies are riskier, and creditors and equity investors require higher returns on their investments to offset the risk. Take the weighted average current yield to maturity of all outstanding debt then multiply it one minus the tax rate and you have the after-tax cost of debt to be used in the WACC formula.

- Securities analysts frequently consult WACC when assessing the value of investments.
- The marginal cost of capital is the average cost which is concerned with the additional funds raised by the firm.
- Shareholders and business leaders analyze cost of capital regularly to ensure they make smart, timely financial decisions.
- The average cost is the average of the various specific costs of the different components of capital structure at a given time.
- Future costs are widely used in capital budgeting and capital structure design decisions.

Aero Ltd had the following cost capital structure employed for financing its projects and would like to calculate the cost of capital. Cost of Capital is the rate of return the firm expects to earn from its investment in order to increase the value of the firm in the market place. In other words, it is the rate of return that the suppliers of capital require as compensation for their contribution of capital.

## Weighted average cost of capital

Also, WACC is not suitable for accessing risky projects because to reflect the higher risk, the cost of capital will be higher. Instead, investors may opt to use adjusted present value (APV), which does not use WACC. Determining cost of debt (Rd), on the other hand, is a more straightforward process.

For example, if the company paid an average yield of 5% on its outstanding bonds, its cost of debt would be 5%. The cost of capital of a firm is the minimum rate of return expected by its investors. In fact, the cost of capital is the minimum rate of return expected by its owner.

## Calculating WACC in Excel

The models state that investors will expect a return that is the risk-free return plus the security’s sensitivity to market risk (β) times the market risk premium. Beyond cost of capital’s role in capital structure, it indicates an organization’s financial health and informs business decisions. When determining an opportunity’s potential expense, cost of capital helps companies evaluate the progress of ongoing projects by comparing their statuses against their costs. This number helps financial leaders assess how attractive investments are—both internally and externally. It’s difficult to pinpoint cost of equity, however, because it’s determined by stakeholders and based on a company’s estimates, historical information, cash flow, and comparisons to similar firms. These groups use it to determine stock prices and potential returns from acquired shares.

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The WACC is calculated by taking a company’s equity and debt cost of capital and assigning a weight to each, based on the company’s capital structure (for instance 60% equity, 40% debt). Once calculated, the WACC gives a composite rate at which a company has to pay to access funding. It is the rate of return an investor requires in order to compensate for the risk of investing in the stock. Beta is a measure of a stock’s volatility of returns relative to the overall stock market (often proxied by a large stock index like the S&P 500 index). If you have the data in Excel, beta can be easily calculated using the SLOPE function. WACC is used in financial modeling (it serves as the discount rate for calculating the net present value of a business).

## Application of Funds

Generally, banks take the ERP from publications by Morningstar or Kroll (formerly known as Duff and Phelps). WACC is used in financial modeling as the discount rate to calculate the net present value of a business. More specifically, WACC is the discount rate used when valuing a business or project using the unlevered free cash flow approach. Another way of thinking about WACC is that it is the required rate an investor needs in order to consider investing in the business. To do this, we need to determine D/V; in this case, that’s 0.2 ($1,000,000 in debt divided by $5,000,000 in total capital).

The discount rate makes it possible to estimate how much the project’s future cash flows would be worth in the present. The discount rate is the interest rate used to determine the present value of future cash flows in a discounted cash flow (DCF) analysis. This helps determine if the future cash flows from a project or investment will be worth more than the capital outlay needed to fund the project or investment in the present. The cost of capital is the minimum rate needed to justify the cost of a new venture, where the discount rate is the number that needs to meet or exceed the cost of capital. Using the CAPM model, an investor can calculate the future anticipated returns of a stock. That rate, in turn, can be plugged back into the cost of capital framework as the input for a company’s cost of equity.

For example, in discounted cash flow (DCF) analysis, the WACC can be applied as the discount rate for future cash flows in order to derive a business’s net present value (NPV). As a hypothetical demonstration of the cost of equity, imagine a hypothetical investor bench accounting review and ratings considering a purchase of the imaginary firm XYZ. Each share of XYZ is valued at $100, and the shares have a beta of 1.3 in relation to the rest of the market. In addition, the risk-free rate is 3% and the investor expects the market to rise by 8% per year.

If, on the other hand, the returns on the capital spent are lower than the cost of sourcing that capital, the project would not be expected to deliver incremental value. Subsequent to the pandemic, however, cost of capital for the retail REIT sector increased dramatically. Both public market equity investors and lenders have become more reticent about investing in the retail space.